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2 Nicholas Faraclas, Tok Pisin (Creole English), pp. Patrick (eds.), Comparative Creole Syntax (London: Battlebridge, 2007). Smith, Growing up with Tok Pisin: Contact, Creofization and Change in Papua New Guinea's National Language (London: Battlebridge, 2002). I am grateful to Porer Nombo and James Leach for permission to include material from their Reite Plants: An Ethnobotanical Study in Tok Pisin and English (ANU E Press, 2010) in units 3 and 4; to "mangi-nambis" for permission to include his poem 'Em Normal' in the box in unit 6; to Mike Quinn, president of the Morobe Province Agriculture Society, for permission to include copyright material from the society's Morobe Show website in unit 7; and to Madang-based anthropologist Nancy Sullivan for allowing me to use photos from her 'Nineteen Years and Counting in Papua New Guinea' blog entries for October 1 5 & 16, 2009 in unit 7. English will be a help in determining correct pronunciation in these cases. A more colloquial way to make a noun definite is to place ya* after it. It is particularly common when the noun in question has been introduced earlier in the discourse or when what it refers to is visible in the context of situation in which speech is taking place, kar ya 'this/that/these/those car(s) (here/there or previously mentioned) *Since the word (presumably) derives from hia 'here', it is sometimes written ia (but see the footnote in section 7.2). Pikinini i (h)amamas [The child is happy'] but not *(h)amamas pikinini). ' - planti wok 'a lot of/much work' *Also spelled plenti. Mama tru bilong Kapris i bin karim em ['give birth to] we? Risosis: Posta, Drama (environmen) ol Askim na Stori. Fasiliteta i tok welkam long ol patisipen, introducim em yet na tokaut long wanem topik long toktok long en. Taim drama i pinis, Fasiliteta i soim ol posta long ol patisipen na i askim ol long tokaut long wanem samting ol i lukim long posta. HAP 5: BUNGIM TOK Fasiliteta tok klia moa long environmen. Seasons, months and days There are two seasons in Papua New Guinea. The most important studies in these areas are summarized in two volumes by Paul Sillitoe which provide a readable introduction to PNG cultures that does not presuppose extensive background in anthropological theory: An Introduction to the Anthropology of Melanesia: Culture and Tradition (CUP, 1989) and Social Change in Melanesia: Development and History (CUP, 2000).

The appearance of these materials also offers me an opportunity to acknowledge several people who have had a less visible but no less important influence on Hariap! Over the years, a (surprising in Northern Finland) number of students with family or work-related ties to countries where English-based pidgins/creoles are spoken have passed through my World Englishes classes. A few words are commonly pronounced differently than they are spelled, except in fairly formal speech. The difference between stressed and unstressed syllables is not as pronounced as in English. As will be seen in Unit 7, ya is a highlighter which calls attention to what precedes it. 6.2 .1 Monosyllabic (root) adjectives Monosyllabic (root) adjectives end in -pela* They stand before the noun which they modify. ' - sikpela pikinini 'sick child' 6.2.2 Polysyllabic (root) adjectives Polysyllabic (root) adjectives, a few of which are quite common, do not take the -pela ending. 6.2.3 Adjectives which occur post-nominally A few fairly commonly met adjectives follow (rather than precede) the noun they modify when used attributively: Bokis i stap nating . ' - pies hart 'hidden place' 6.2.4 Plural adjectives There is no fixed word order pattern for marking attributive adjectives as plural. Bihain long dispela em i mekim stori long kliarim liklik wanem samting tru em environmen. Ol patisipen i tokaut long wanem samting ol i lukim long posta. Em tokaut long wanem as tru ol i bin soim long drama, wanem samting tru ol i lukim long posta na long ol wan wan askim ol i toktok long em insait long grup na long ol wanwan presentesin blong ol wan wan grup. taim bilong ren 'rainy season' taim bilong san 'dry season' ~ haiwara 'flood season; high tide' (drai wara 'low tide [not a season]) The Tok Pisin names of the months of the year (o/ mun bilong yia/yar) are all clear borrowings from English, but it is also possible to refer to them as nama wan mun, namba tu mun, etc. Jane Resture has gathered together photos of Papua New Guinea tribal art at

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Cathy whetted my appetite for anthropological linguistics and accepted my first undergraduate paper on English-based pidgins/creoles. Speakers proficient in English may add to this basic system as follows: 4 S/7 = /J/ cfo = /tf/(or/ts/) y = /d 3 / (or/dz/) Tense vs. Sapos yu givim ol guds na seves pas- taim long 11* DISEMBA 2009, yu bai ol bairn yu long 2009 year Toksave ken olsem Gavman bai bairn tasol ol opisol ILPOC na ino ol narapela kain kleim. Authorised by; GABRIEL YER SECRETARY BILONG FAINENS I NO KEN SIMUK - LARIM SQKffi MASt S NA BEHS1M Mt ASt S IWSAt T L0II0 SOWS 59 Grammar 5.0 Linking clauses: Coordination, subordination and imbedding Tok Pisin clauses can be linked into compound and complex sentences through rather straightforward processes of coordination and subordination. ' *A few speakers who are strongly influenced by English are now occasionally using bat for the coordinate conjunction tasol. Imbed one clause into another using the strategies introduced in section 5.3 above. ol yangpela meri 'young/unmarried women' ol yangpela ol meri 'young/unmarried women' yangpela ol meri 'young/unmarried women' 6.2.5 Adjective strings Adjective strings are (theoretically) possible, particularly in English-influenced written Tok Pisin: Mi bin lukim draipela , strongpela pukpuk. ' But in spoken styles it is more common to avoid them by using a relative clause construction: Mi bin lukim strongpela pukpuk i draipela . ' 6.2.6 Qualification of adjectives and adverbs Adjectives and adverbs that stand in the predicate can be qualified by words such as liklik 'rather, a little', tumas Very, too much', tru 'true(ly)', mo(a) 'more', mo(a) yet 'extremely' and olgeta 'entirely'. Mekim wanpela hap eria long solwara blong kisim ol sel o go painim pis long em. William at the Parataxonomist Training Center in Madang. John Dademo Waiko, A Short History of Papua New Guinea (Melbourne: OUP, 1993) is a brief history of the country written by a Papua New Guinean.

George encouraged my interest in pidgins/creoles by arranging for me to meet his former Ohio University colleague Gilbert Schneider, whose work on Cameroon Pidgin English has stood the test of time. Imbedding allows the inclusion of relative clauses within a main clause. 5.2 Subordination The following is a list of the most important Tok Pisin subordinate conjunctions. The qualifier word is placed after the adjective or adverb: Bilum i hevi liklik . Tambuim pasin bombom long solwara, noken kilim ol liklik pis na painim ol sel long arere long pies, tambuim ol kampani blong autsait long kam kisim timba, gol, kopa o mekim narapela ol samting we em i ken bringim bikpela bagarap long enviromen blong yumi. Bilong wanem environmen i bikpela samting [Important]? The following vocabulary may be helpful: arere 'next to; edge' lus tingting long 'forget about' RIP EM WANPELA BIKPELA SAMTING TRU WE I GIVIM BIK NEM LONG YUMI OLSEM. Wanem samting i givim biknem long kantri bilong yumi? The film is subtitled in English, so there are no comprehension questions. For keeping up with current news, Papua New Guniea's two daily newspapers, The Post Courier and The National, publish free internet editions.

There are also literary reasons for including music videos in each unit: Since writers of Papua New Guinea "quality" poetry and fiction tend to work in English, popular music is by far the most active of the art forms in which Tok Pisin is used today 4 . What two word Tok Pisin expression for hunt is literally means 'look for edible animals'. Grammar 1.1 Orthography and Pronunciation Written Tok Pisin has a fairly close grapheme-phoneme correspondence. This seems to be an individual matter (linked strongly to school contexts and urban residence). pamuk meri '(female) prostitute' skrap man 'sexy fellow' pukpuk spana 'pipe wrench/spanner' Unfortunately, it is not possible to look at (the very complex subject of) Tok Pisin word formation here. Toward a Reference Grammar of Tok Pisin (Honolulu: U of Hawai'i Press, 1996). When this is the case, the noun may be dropped, leaving a pro-form with the meaning 'one which is X' (e.g. It indicates who something was acquired from, and is used to fill the role of a (bewildering) number of other English prepositions as well. ' plai long smokbalus 'fly by/with/in a jet' plai long nait 'fly during the night' bairn (bi)long ritim 'buy to read' *Note: bairn kar long poro 'buy a car from a pal' bairn kar bilong poro 'buy a car for a pal' - 'buy a pal's car' 6.3.1 Adverbs used as prepositions A few adverbs can also be used as prepositions, papa wantaim mama 'father together with/and mother' {compare papa na mama wantaim father and mother together) wok olsem nes 'work as a nurse' wokabaut inap (long) Hagen 'walk to (= until) Mt Hagen. Wanem nem bilong kalabus we Kapris i ronawe (-ranawe) long en? Bikpela As tingting: Strongim pipol long lukautim gut graun, bus, solwara, wara na olgeta samting we i stap insait na antap long em. English tok pies number exchange While Tok Pisin speakers are adopting the English numeral system, Tok Pisin numbers are being adopted into many of the local languages of Papua New Guinea. 'It's six minutes to one.' Elsewhere the following are more useful: de - long san ~ tulait 'daytime' tulait 'dawn' (about 6 a.m.

Culture box Each unit ends with a boxed text linking the Tok Pisin language to the PNG cultures which use it. TP letters are arranged into a phoneme chart below: Consonants Vowels Diphthongs Triphthongs oi j aia awa p t k i u ia b d g e o m n ng a ai f s h V r w y Letter values are close to I PA values with the following exceptions: b, d and g are /b/, /d/, /g/ but may be prenasalized by some speakers ([ m b], [ n d],[°g]). For some speakers these two pronunciations appear to be in free variation. Bebi ya i pikinini bilong rot ['illegitimate child]. It is not possible to draw up a list of such words used by all TP speakers, though the following are fairly common: bois 'boys', geis 'girls', frens 'friends', gems 'games', yias 'years', enimols 'animals'. Interested readers will want to consult the relevant chapters in John W. The book is now out of print, though sections are available on the internet. In addition, some speakers prefer long to bilong to introduce an infinitive. 6.3.2 Adverb preposition To express more precise spatial/temporal meanings, semantically appropriate adverbs can be used before long to create a phrasal preposition. Ol astingting Fasiliteta i mas save pastaim long lesen. This is perhaps not surprising when it is remembered that unlike Tok 106 Pisin (and English, with which isolated villagers are likely to have less contact), many PNG traditional cultures did not use a base-ten counting system. in PNG) sankamap 'sunrise' moning 'morning' belo* 'lunch time, noon' belo* bek 'about 1 p.m.' avinun -apinun 'afternoon through dusk' sandaun 'sunset' nait -tudak 'nighttime' (about 6 p.m.

Unit 1 introduces the standard (to the extent that there is a standard) pronunciation and writing system of Tok Pisin. v=Fk1 V_02b TY4 and watch the music video Sanap (Civil pawa) made by a group of civil engineering students at Unitech, the University of Technology in Lae.

Understanding Tok Pisin in a Hurry James Haines ii \ iii Introduction / Tok i go pas v Unit 1 A Rotokas myth 1 Orthography and Pronunciation 3 Subject/Object Pronouns 4 Question words (Interrogative pronouns) 5 Unit 2 Biblical Tok Pisin 9 Descriptive clauses 1 3 Question tags 14 Answering yes/no questions 1 5 Existential clauses 15 Imperative mood 16 The (non-existent) passive voice 1 7 Minor and elliptical clauses 1 7 Unit 3 Taim bilong ol tumbuna 23 Adjectival verbs 25 Intransitive verbs 25 Transitive verbs 26 Relation between intransitive/adjectival and transitive verbs 27 Copular verbs 27 Serial verbs 28 Adverbs 28 Unit 4 01 tewel, masalai, mania samting 35 Tense-Mood-Aspect (TMA) Markers 37 Modal verbs 40 Units Government and NGO publications 47 Coordination 59 Subordination 59 Clause imbedding 61 Relative clauses 61 Indefinite pronouns 62 Unit 6 Newspaper language 67 Nouns 77 Adjectives 79 Prepositions 81 Unit 7 Tok Pisin bilong ol grasrut 87 Numbers 101 In situ hig hlig hters 1 02 Word order focusing devices 1 02 Relative clauses and focus 103 Episode shift markers 1 04 Appendix: Taking it further 109 iv V Introduction / Tok i go pas Hariap! In addition, Tok Pisin is as least as mutually intelligible with its sister Neo-Melanesian pidgin/creoles— Solomon Islands Pijin and Vanuatu Bislama — as are the various regional forms of Norwegian and Swedish with each other. With this goal in mind, the materials have been arranged in order to introduce early on those aspects of Tok Pisin grammar which may prove most challenging for fluent speakers of English who want to understand, rather than produce, Tok Pisin texts.

Na Rokrok em i kirap na rausim han bilong en na em i isi na tok yes. Wanpela de Rokrok i kirap long moning taim tru na redim kaikai. Long apinun Rokrok i kam bek long pies na kukim gen kaikai. Snake's legs were curled around the posts of the house. ' ~ Kenia was working really hard while I was staying with her. ' *Opis is now most commonly pronounced (and frequently written) /ofis/. 92 Olgeta grup yumas painim diwai na narepela samting long wokim kaikai bilong yu. Olgeta grups bai kisim liklik hap kaikai long So Societi inap long 3 pela dei tasol taim ol istap long Lae. 110 Dictionaries of Tok Pisin The Oxford Papua New Guinea Tok Pisin-English Dictionary, which appeared in 2008, contains both Tok Pisin-Englsh and English-Tok Pisin sections, provides a wealth of examples of word usage and is relatively inexpensive.

Em i bin kaikai kaukau bilong en na em i bin lusim kaukau bilong man bilong en long sit bilong paia. Snek i bin sindaun tasol na lukluk long Once upon a time a frog used to lived near a river/water. ' ~ 'Whenever I stay with Kenia, she works really hard. 5.2.3 sapos ('if ) Clauses expressing a hypothetical situation are introduced by sapos: Sapos yu gat laik long go long danis wantaim mi, bai mi bairn dua long yu. Namba bilong manmneri long wanwan grup ino ken aninit long 20 na antap long 30 manmeri na pikanini . (Not without reason does the cover boast that it is "[t]he perfect dictionary for learners of English and Tok Pisin".) Two internet dictionaries also deserve mention.

Em i bin go long gaden na em i wok wanpela dei olgeta long hatpela san. She was beautiful and she was in the habit of working hard. ' Time reference can be made more specific in the following ways: ((insait) long) taim (mi stap wantaim em) yet... - Bai mi bairn dua long yu sapos yu gat laik long go long danis wantaim mi. Olgeta grups mas kamap long Lae long Friday 17th October. The Revising the Mihalic Project website houses a medium sized scholarly Tok Pisin-English dictionary which gives good examples of the nuances of each word's use.

'If you would like to go to the (western-style) dance with me, I'll pay your admission fee. Olgeta wabwab singsing grups bai kisim liklik hamamas moni long mekim singsing ikamap. The Tok Pisin-English Dictionary housed on the Webster's Online Dictionary website (and the related print book Wesbter's New Guinea Pidgin English- English Thesaurus Dictionary), based on a collection of machine searchable Tok Pisin texts and their English translations, is a useful large glossary though occasionally inaccurate or misleading.

Unit 5 introduces clause linking through coordination, subordination, and imbedding. On the other hand, for highly educated Papua New Guineans Tok Pisin tends to be a language of low prestige and frequent use. Recalling that most Papua New Guineans who use the internet do so in an educataional or office context, it is not surprising that English-Tok Pisin code switching is particularly characteristic of posts on internet message boards and chatrooms.

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