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Although there have not been systematic, detailed investigations to determine the extent to which graduate programs have included curriculum in the area of abuse, the professional literature suggests that graduate training programs have largely ignored abuse as a specific content area.

Alpert (1990), for example, noted that there is "relatively little formal education and training in child sexual abuse" (p. Thoughtful articles on the structure and content of formal training in this area - emphasizing the lack of prior attention - have just begun to appear (Alpert & Paulson, 1990).

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In the third section(graduate training and internship), participants rated their graduate program and then their internship training in seven areas: childhood or adolescent sexual abuse, childhood or adolescent nonsexual physical violence, sexual harassment, actual or attempted rape, nonsexual violence against an adult, therapist-(adult) patient sexual involvement, and physician-(adult) patient sexual involvement.

All ratings were made on a 5-point scale ranging from 1 (; e.g., much attention devoted to the topic).

The other degrees were Ed D ( analysis revealed that gender was not significantly related to the return rate (i.e., the proportion of men was not significantly different from the proportion of women who responded to this survey). Approximately one third (33.1%) of the participants reported having experienced some form of sexual or physical abuse as a child or adolescent.

The most frequently reported types of abuse were sexual abuse by a relative (13.8%); sexual abuse by a nonrelative other than a teacher, physician, therapist, or counselor (13.1%); and physical abuse (11.0%).

Our study surveyed a national sample of clinical and counseling psychologists (a) to determine the proportion of practitioners who reported having been sexually or physically abused; (b) to assess the degree to which practitioners believed that their graduate and internship training in the area of abuse was adequate; (c) to assess the degree to which practitioners believed that they were competent to provide services to those who had experienced various forms of abuse; and (d) to explore the degree to which gender, the year the highest degree was earned, reported history of abuse, reported adequacy of training, and perceived competence might be interrelated.

Sample Selection and Survey Procedure A sample of 500 psychologists (250 men and 250 women) who were members of at least one of three of the American Psychological Association's (APA's) divisions was randomly selected from the .

Only 2.5% of the participants believed that such involvements were not at all coercive if they occurred in the working relationship; only 17% believed involvements were not at all coercive if they occurred outside of the working relationship.

Finally, a national survey of clinical and counseling psychologists indicated that only 15% believed that their training to provide help to patients who had experienced therapist-patient sexual involvement had been adequate (Pope & Vetter, 1991).

For women, engaging in sexual contact as students with educators was statistically related to later sexual contact as professionals.

Of those women who had sex as a student, 23% reported sex as a professional, compared with only 6% of those who, while students, had no sex with their educators. 686) A subsequent survey of female psychologists also showed that student-teacher sexual contact was quite common (17%) and that, in hindsight, women believed that they were negatively affected by such contact (Glaser & Thorpe, 1986).

In the fourth section (current competence or expertise) , participants rated their current competence in providing professional services to individuals whose needs were related to each of the seven types of experiences listed in the second section (i.e., childhood or adolescent sexual abuse, childhood or adolescent nonsexual physical abuse, etc.).

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