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As a result, a series of fortifications was built along the coast, and on several occasions, most notably the Battle of Bloody Marsh on St.Simons Island, British troops that were commanded and financed by Oglethorpe kept the Spanish at bay.It was on that frontier that the state founded, in a 1785 charter, the University of Georgia, the first university in the nation established by a state government.

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That same year, the capital was moved from Savannah to Augusta (Georgia's second oldest city), and not long after, the Battle of Kettle Creek took place in nearby Wilkes County.

Possibly present at Kettle Creek was legendary Georgian Nancy Hart, a female patriot and spy credited with killing several Tories at her home.

The human history of Georgia begins well before the founding of the colony, with Native American cultures that date back to the Paleoindian Period at the end of the Ice Age, nearly 13,000 years ago. These unique environmental zones drew a variety of native peoples to the region, leading to a greater diversity of early Indian cultures than was found elsewhere in the Southeast.

The Clovis culture, identified by its unique projectile points, is the earliest documented group to have lived in present-day Georgia. The numerous varieties of pottery found in Georgia today testify to this diversity.explorers and settlers, the Mississippian cultures began to decline, and remnants of various chiefdoms coalesced to form larger societies, including those of the Creeks and Cherokees, both of which played significant roles in the colonial history of Georgia.

(Only Virginia was larger, until its northwestern counties withdrew to form the separate state of West Virginia in 1863.) As both an Atlantic seaboard state and a Deep South state, Georgia played a particularly crucial role in the secession crisis and the formation of the Confederacy.

It had the largest population and the largest number of both slaves and slaveholders of any Deep South state (and was second only to Virginia overall), and yet it had two vast geographical areas in which slavery played only a minimal part—the southeastern wiregrass and longleaf pine woods region, and the northern mountains.Another notable first was Along with Alabama and Mississippi, Georgia was home to a significant Native American populace for much longer than any other state along the eastern seaboard.While white Georgians were not alone in their conflicts with and ultimate removal of that native presence (in Georgia's case, of the Creeks and the Cherokees), the tragic circumstances of the Cherokees' forced exile from the state's northwestern territory in 1838-39, known as the "Trail of Tears," became a particularly potent symbol of the trauma and suffering that all such removals entailed. The construction of railroads connecting Athens, Augusta, Macon, and Savannah was another important development in Georgia during the 1830s.By the mid-1600s English settlers from South Carolina made forays across the Savannah River and into northeast Georgia, engaging first in a thriving slave trade of Indians and later in the even more lucrative deerskin trade, which continued well beyond the British colonization of Georgia.colonial experience was very different from that of the other British colonies in North America.Established in 1732, with settlement in Savannah in 1733, Georgia was the last of the thirteen colonies to be founded.Spanish expeditions moved through the region from the mid-1500s through the 1660s, the most notable of which was Hernando de Soto's expedition in 1540.

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